Sports scientists assist sportspeople to achieve the best possible sporting performance, by applying knowledge and techniques from the areas of medicine, physiology, biomechanics (the study of human movement), nutrition, psychology and physiotherapy/massage.
Sports scientists may devise treatment and exercise programmes to assist sportspeople to return to training or competition. They design or assist in designing training programmes for sportspeople to improve their sporting performances without injuring themselves, or to strengthen particular areas of the body. They may refer clients to medical and paramedical specialists such as orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, physiotherapists and sports podiatrists.
Dieticians plan diets for athletes so they will consume the correct balance of foods needed for strenuous or extended physical activity. Dieticians liaise with athletes and coaches to implement maximally effective nutritional programmes. See also separate entry for Dietician.
Physiotherapists treat and assist in the rehabilitation of most muscle, ligament and joint injuries. They may use manual means or electrical apparatus to stimulate damaged muscle tissue, and may restore the full range of limb movement by stretching or mobilising techniques. (See also separate entry for Physiotherapist.)
Sports medicine practitioners are concerned with the treatment and prevention of sporting injuries caused by sporting accidents or overuse. They may monitor sporting performances and provide on-site medical treatment. Sports Medicine Practitioners also diagnose injuries and devise treatment programmes to assist sports people to return to training or competition. (See also separate entry for Medical Practitioner.)
Sports podiatrists analyse abnormalities in the structure of athletes’ feet or in their manner of walking. They are responsible for designing orthotics devices placed in the shoe to redistribute the load on the foot. See also separate entry for Podiatrist.
Sports trainers usually see an injured athlete at the time of injury. They determine whether an injury is minor or potentially severe, and aid in applying appropriate first aid and minimising the damage to injured tissues. Sports trainers also assist in pre-exercise preparation, including pre-event bandaging and massage.
Sports psychologists specialise in helping top sportspeople to realise their full potential and to overcome negative blocks in their mindsets. (See separate entry for Psychologist.)
Sports scientists often attend training sessions and sporting fixtures to monitor sporting performances as well as working in an office or testing laboratory. They have a high level of contact with the public.
Many professionals working in sports medicine are self-employed and may subcontract their services. Clients include professional and social sportspeople.
Sports scientists may work as health consultants, fitness consultants, or as rehabilitation consultants. In some instances, they work on a voluntary basis as members of sporting clubs.