Information about the composition of soil is required for a variety of reasons. It may be needed to assist with planning and surveying for land development purposes; to assess the effect of agrochemicals used in farming; to aid land restoration and reclamation projects; to gauge drainage and irrigation requirements; or to investigate environmental, climatic and pollution issues.
For this reason, soil scientists are trained to identify and evaluate soil types for agricultural and non-agricultural uses, to determine the deficiencies of various kinds of soil and how these may be rectified. The process includes aspects such as soil-cultivation methods and practices, soil fertility and fertilising, irrigation and drainage.
Soil scientists can specialise in various fields :
- soil formation - the processes whereby soil is formed
- soil classification - the classification of soil according to its properties
- soil mineralogy - the composition of the soil
- soil science - the biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil
- soil fertility - how many plant nutrients the soil contains and it can take up
- soil decay - through, for example, erosion or by becoming brackish
Thus, their work may involve: classifying soils according to standard types; conducting experiments on farms to determine the best soil type for different plants; analysing soil to establish chemical and mineralogical relationships to plant growth; and/or investigating the effects of tillage, fertilisation, crop rotation, environmental factors and pollution on different soil types.
Soil scientists are researchers, developers and advisors. They use their knowledge to ensure that good soil planning and management are applied. They make recommendations regarding soil fertilisation and the correct use of water. Soil scientists are responsible for optimal soil utilisation. They must prevent soil decay and ensure that the natural soil fertility is maintained and improved. Farmland with good potential must be reserved for agricultural use.
Soil scientists work in the field as well as in the laboratory and use natural resource data banks, simulation models and computers. They work closely with other agricultural experts and with farmers, ensuring that available knowledge and research are utilised to improve soil-management practices.
- Agricultural Research Council
- research institutes and organisations
- Department of Agriculture
- agricultural cooperations
- fertiliser manufacturers
- self-employment, can start own business and practice as an analyst, soil surveyor and development consultant to the agricultural and nstruction industries, development cooperatives, commercial banks and landscape architects
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