Journalists gather information on specific subjects, people, events or occurrences and write the information in a report form for the press, radio, television, Internet, public relations division of a company or other institution.
Junior reporters are usually assigned to write on more general news events such as court and crime reporting, school and municipal news. As journalists’ writing abilities develop, other important matters are covered, eg, sport, finances, news, art, culture and politics.
Experienced newspaper and broadcast journalists may report on international news, or they may become foreign correspondents for their specific media institutions. South African foreign correspondents employed by news media institutions, are usually based in major cities such as London, Washington, Amsterdam, Canberra, Tokyo and other international centres.
Journalists usually specialise in either print journalism or broadcast journalism. Print journalists can work for a wide variety of newspapers, magazines, journals and technical publications, while the broadcast journalist is usually assigned to report for radio and/or television.
Regional and country newspaper journalists often have to report on a wide variety of subjects, and journalists working for regional newspapers have to be very versatile, often combining writing and photographic skills to report on news events varying from politics to crime, sport, school events, art and culture.
Magazines employ fewer full-time journalists mainly because they make use of experienced writers or freelance reporters.
Specialised reporting for trade and technical publications is a fast growing and important facet of print journalism, as well as so-called “hobby” magazines, which provide careers for journalists who have the necessary knowledge and interest in special fields. These journalists provide the latest information on developments in special fields for specialised publications concentrating on, for example, music, theatre, agriculture, business, engineering, different sports.
Freelance journalists work on their own without a regular income. These journalists write on a wide variety of topics for various publications and radio and television stations and often find markets for their material by researching topics and visiting places of conflict, which are not regularly assigned by the conventional news media.
Another facet of journalism is the work of the press photographer, sometimes known as a photojournalist, who fulfils a very important task in reporting on news events.
Journalists may work in offices of newspapers, magazines, radio and television. Generally these offices are crowded and busy. Magazine offices however are much quieter. Journalists have to visit the sites of events of interest. They research their assignments in libraries and information centres. They work irregular hours and their duties often compel them to work at night. There are risks involved in covering events such as fires, bomb explosions, unrest and strikes.
Journalists may also work as editors. Other areas of speciality include: